Drug treatment carried out in a complex of recreational activities should be based on the necessary minimum and determined by the type of nosology. Modern features of the course of respiratory diseases and new data on the immune system make the problem of choosing effective immunocorrective drugs, the spectrum of which is quite wide, particularly urgent:
• immunocorrectors of natural origin (vaccines, endotoxins, nucleic acids, interferons, interferonogens, thymus preparations, etc.);
• synthetic drugs (polyoxidonium, lycopid, immunofan, bendazole, etc.).
Most immunocorrective drugs (stimulants, modulators) selectively affect different parts of the immune system, therefore, their appointment requires strict consideration of indications and contraindications, dynamic clinical and immunological control, and repeated courses of immunocorrections are usually carried out no more than 1-2 times a year.
Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a serious public health problem because of their widespread prevalence in both children and adults. ARIs make up about 90% of all infectious diseases of childhood, these are the most common diseases in outpatient practice: more than 80% of all home calls from doctors are caused by ARI. The highest incidence of respiratory infections is observed in preschool children attending organized groups. The high frequency of infections of the respiratory system in children is due to the peculiarities of the maturation of the child’s immune system, the high contagiousness of viral infections, unstable immunity to a number of pathogens (MS viruses, parainfluenza), a variety of gray and biotypes of pneumotropic bacteria (pneumococci, staphylococci, hemophilic bacillus). ARI in children is currently not only a medical, but also a socio-economic problem .
Acute respiratory infections are a group of polyetiologic diseases. The main pathogens of acute respiratory infections are viruses tropic to the epithelium of the respiratory tract and contributing to their secondary colonization by bacteria. Viral infections damage the epithelium of the respiratory tract and cause inflammation of the mucous membrane. Inflammation of the respiratory tract is characterized by an increase in the production of viscous mucus, which is manifested by a runny nose and an unproductive cough. The viscous secret promotes the adhesion (adhesion) of pathogens of respiratory infections on the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, which creates favorable conditions for the development of bacterial superinfection. In turn, microorganisms and their toxins worsen the movement of the cilia of the epithelium, disrupt the drainage functions of the bronchial tree, reduce the bactericidal properties of bronchial secretions and local immunological protection of the respiratory tract with a high risk of developing a protracted and chronic course of the inflammatory process. Damaged bronchial epithelium has an increased sensitivity of receptors to external influences, which significantly increases the likelihood of developing bronchospasm and bacterial superinfection [7.8].
The main bacterial pathogens of acute respiratory infections are pneumotropic microorganisms, including pneumococcus and other gram-positive cocci, influenza bacillus influenza, moraxella catarilis, atypical pathogens (mycoplasma, pneumonia chlamydophila) and others. It is believed that the primary viral infection often leads to the activation of endogenous conditionally . The reason for the easier transformation of this microflora into a pathogenic one in a number of children is associated with individual characteristics of the immune response, impaired barrier function of the respiratory tract, decreased local immunity, and also with superinfection with bacterial agents. The attachment of a bacterial infection leads to an increase in the severity of the disease and may be the main cause of an adverse outcome. The nature of the clinical picture of acute respiratory infections is largely due to the pathogenic properties of the pathogen. However, it is known that the younger the child, the less specific symptoms the disease has.
Thus, with a respiratory infection, a symptom complex almost always develops due to damage to the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract at different levels (rhinitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, tracheitis, bronchitis).
In modern conditions, children are exposed to the above risk factors for malfunctions of the immune system. Given the above, it is obvious that immunorehabilitation measures deserve special attention and should be part of programs to maintain and restore health.