There are many reasons and risk factors for a decrease in immunity
There are many reasons and risk factors for a decrease in immunity. A transient decrease in immunity is caused by insufficient protein and energy nutrition, a deficiency in the consumption…

Continue reading →

Vitamin D deficiency in the system "mother - placenta - fetus"
Advances in perinatal medicine, which has been rapidly developing in recent decades, have led to a significant increase in the survival rate of premature babies with very low and extremely…

Continue reading →

HOW TO DO IT WITH CHILD DISEASES
However, the main cause of childhood diseases is a lack of love and attention to the child. What if a childhood illness is a call for parental love? If the…

Continue reading →

Children and immunity

Immunity is passive in nature and is provided by maternal antibodies. At the same time, its own immune system is in a state of suppression. The phagocytosis system is not developed. The newborn shows little resistance to opportunistic, pyogenic, gram-negative flora. A tendency to generalization of microbial-inflammatory processes, to septic conditions is characteristic. The child is very sensitive to viral infections, against which he is not protected by maternal antibodies. Approximately on the 5th day of life, the first cross in the white blood formula takes place and the absolute and relative predominance of lymphocytes is established.

The second critical period is due to the destruction of maternal antibodies. The primary immune response to infection penetrates through the synthesis of class M immunoglobulins and leaves no immunological memory. This type of immune response also occurs with vaccination against infectious diseases, and only revaccination forms a secondary immune response with the production of antibodies of the IgG class. The insufficiency of the local immunity system is manifested by repeated SARS, intestinal infections and dysbiosis, skin diseases. Children are very sensitive to respiratory syncytial virus, rotavirus, parainfluenza viruses, adenoviruses (high susceptibility to inflammatory processes of the respiratory system, intestinal infections). Pertussis and measles occur atypically without leaving immunity. Many hereditary diseases, including primary immunodeficiencies, make their debut. The frequency of food allergies is sharply increasing, masking atopic manifestations in children.

The third critical period. The child’s contacts with the outside world are expanding significantly (freedom of movement, socialization). The primary immune response (IgM synthesis) to many antigens is maintained. At the same time, the switching of immune responses to the formation of antibodies of the IgG class begins. The local immunity system remains immature. Therefore, children remain susceptible to viral and microbial infections. During this period, for the first time, many primary immunodeficiencies, autoimmune and immunocomplex diseases (glomerulonephritis, vasculitis, etc.) are manifested. Children are prone to repeated viral and microbial inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system, ENT organs. The signs of immunodiathesis (atopic, lymphatic, autoallergic) become more clear. Manifestations of food allergies are gradually weakening. According to immunobiological characteristics, a significant part of children of the second year of life is not ready for the conditions of stay in the children’s team.

The critical period is characterized in that the average concentration of IgG and IgM in the blood corresponds to the level of adults, however, the level of IgA in the blood still does not reach the final values. The IgE content in blood plasma is characterized by a maximum level in comparison with other age periods, which is partly due to fairly frequent parasitic infections during this period – giardiasis, helminth infections. At the same time, the level of serum IgA remains below normal. This is often considered as a risk factor for the formation of many chronic diseases of a polygenic nature. Allergic pathology may increase.

The critical period occurs against the background of rapid hormonal changes (accounts for 12–13 years for girls and 14–15 years for boys). Against the background of increased secretion of sex steroids, the volume of lymphoid organs decreases. The secretion of sex hormones leads to the suppression of cellular immunity. The IgE content in the blood is reduced. The strong and weak types of the immune response are finally formed. The influence of exogenous factors (smoking, xenobiotics, etc.) on the immune system is growing. Increased sensitivity to mycobacteria. After a certain decline, an increase in the frequency of chronic inflammatory as well as autoimmune and lymphoproliferative diseases is noted. The severity of atopic diseases (asthma, etc.) in many children is temporarily weakened, but they can recur at a young age.

The fifth critical period occurs against the background of rapid hormonal changes (accounts for 12–13 years for girls and 14–15 years for boys). Against the background of increased secretion of sex steroids, the volume of lymphoid organs decreases. The secretion of sex hormones leads to the suppression of cellular immunity. The IgE content in the blood is reduced. The strong and weak types of the immune response are finally formed. The influence of exogenous factors (smoking, xenobiotics, etc.) on the immune system is growing. Increased sensitivity to mycobacteria. After a certain decline, an increase in the frequency of chronic inflammatory as well as autoimmune and lymphoproliferative diseases is noted. The severity of atopic diseases (asthma, etc.) in many children is temporarily weakened, but they can recur at a young age.

HOW TO DO IT WITH CHILD DISEASES
However, the main cause of childhood diseases is a lack of love and attention to the child. What if a childhood illness is a call for parental love? If the…

...

Measles: the war on childhood plague continues
Thanks to routine immunization, we managed to forget about the many incredibly contagious and dangerous diseases. Nevertheless, it’s too early to relax: if group immunity decreases due to refusal of…

...

Epileptic status in children. Clinical lecture
Epileptic status (ES) is characterized by prolonged or repeated seizures / episodes without a return to the normal state for this patient. ES is often found in pediatric practice, it…

...

Children need to be sick
And this paradoxical thing once became a discovery for me. That a child needs to survive about 50 snot episodes to form a mature immune system. Fifty! Necessary! That is,…

...