Infectious diseases for children
Rubella is a viral infectious disease that is transmitted by airborne droplets. Rubella is characterized by a slight swelling of the lymph nodes. A pinkish-red rash appears on the body.…

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The child was hospitalized: what rights do parents have?
When children get sick, and even more so get to the hospital, worries and worries fall on their parents. And if during this period the struggle for the health of…

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Results of an international multicenter study of release-active antibodies to interferon gamma in the treatment of influenza and acute respiratory viral infections in children
Influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections (SARS) are the most common diseases in the child population. Annual ARVI outbreaks are caused by respiratory viruses of 5 groups, including more…

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Children and immunity

Immunity is passive in nature and is provided by maternal antibodies. At the same time, its own immune system is in a state of suppression. The phagocytosis system is not developed. The newborn shows little resistance to opportunistic, pyogenic, gram-negative flora. A tendency to generalization of microbial-inflammatory processes, to septic conditions is characteristic. The child is very sensitive to viral infections, against which he is not protected by maternal antibodies. Approximately on the 5th day of life, the first cross in the white blood formula takes place and the absolute and relative predominance of lymphocytes is established.

The second critical period is due to the destruction of maternal antibodies. The primary immune response to infection penetrates through the synthesis of class M immunoglobulins and leaves no immunological memory. This type of immune response also occurs with vaccination against infectious diseases, and only revaccination forms a secondary immune response with the production of antibodies of the IgG class. The insufficiency of the local immunity system is manifested by repeated SARS, intestinal infections and dysbiosis, skin diseases. Children are very sensitive to respiratory syncytial virus, rotavirus, parainfluenza viruses, adenoviruses (high susceptibility to inflammatory processes of the respiratory system, intestinal infections). Pertussis and measles occur atypically without leaving immunity. Many hereditary diseases, including primary immunodeficiencies, make their debut. The frequency of food allergies is sharply increasing, masking atopic manifestations in children.

The third critical period. The child’s contacts with the outside world are expanding significantly (freedom of movement, socialization). The primary immune response (IgM synthesis) to many antigens is maintained. At the same time, the switching of immune responses to the formation of antibodies of the IgG class begins. The local immunity system remains immature. Therefore, children remain susceptible to viral and microbial infections. During this period, for the first time, many primary immunodeficiencies, autoimmune and immunocomplex diseases (glomerulonephritis, vasculitis, etc.) are manifested. Children are prone to repeated viral and microbial inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system, ENT organs. The signs of immunodiathesis (atopic, lymphatic, autoallergic) become more clear. Manifestations of food allergies are gradually weakening. According to immunobiological characteristics, a significant part of children of the second year of life is not ready for the conditions of stay in the children’s team.

The critical period is characterized in that the average concentration of IgG and IgM in the blood corresponds to the level of adults, however, the level of IgA in the blood still does not reach the final values. The IgE content in blood plasma is characterized by a maximum level in comparison with other age periods, which is partly due to fairly frequent parasitic infections during this period – giardiasis, helminth infections. At the same time, the level of serum IgA remains below normal. This is often considered as a risk factor for the formation of many chronic diseases of a polygenic nature. Allergic pathology may increase.

The critical period occurs against the background of rapid hormonal changes (accounts for 12–13 years for girls and 14–15 years for boys). Against the background of increased secretion of sex steroids, the volume of lymphoid organs decreases. The secretion of sex hormones leads to the suppression of cellular immunity. The IgE content in the blood is reduced. The strong and weak types of the immune response are finally formed. The influence of exogenous factors (smoking, xenobiotics, etc.) on the immune system is growing. Increased sensitivity to mycobacteria. After a certain decline, an increase in the frequency of chronic inflammatory as well as autoimmune and lymphoproliferative diseases is noted. The severity of atopic diseases (asthma, etc.) in many children is temporarily weakened, but they can recur at a young age.

The fifth critical period occurs against the background of rapid hormonal changes (accounts for 12–13 years for girls and 14–15 years for boys). Against the background of increased secretion of sex steroids, the volume of lymphoid organs decreases. The secretion of sex hormones leads to the suppression of cellular immunity. The IgE content in the blood is reduced. The strong and weak types of the immune response are finally formed. The influence of exogenous factors (smoking, xenobiotics, etc.) on the immune system is growing. Increased sensitivity to mycobacteria. After a certain decline, an increase in the frequency of chronic inflammatory as well as autoimmune and lymphoproliferative diseases is noted. The severity of atopic diseases (asthma, etc.) in many children is temporarily weakened, but they can recur at a young age.

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