Respiratory diseases in children
The structure of the human respiratory system The human respiratory system consists of tissues and organs providing pulmonary ventilation and pulmonary respiration. In the structure of the system, it is possible to distinguish the main elements – the airways and lungs, as well as auxiliary – elements of the musculoskeletal system. The airways include: nose, nasal cavity, nasopharynx, trachea, larynx, bronchi and bronchioles. The lungs consist of alveolar sacs, bronchioles, as well as arteries, capillaries, veins of the pulmonary circulation. Elements of the musculoskeletal system associated with breathing include ribs, intercostal muscles, the diaphragm, and auxiliary respiratory muscles. Numerous studies carried out in various countries have shown a significant increase in respiratory diseases over the past 10 years.
Types of respiratory diseases. Bronchitis is an infectious disease accompanied by diffuse inflammation of the bronchi. The main symptom of the disease is a cough. If the disease lasts less than three weeks, they speak of acute bronchitis. If symptoms of bronchitis appear for at least three months during the year for two years or more, you can safely make a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. If the onset of the disease is accompanied by shortness of breath, then they talk about obstructive bronchitis. The main bacterial pathogens of bronchitis: staphylococci, pneumococci, streptococci. The causative agents of bronchitis of a viral nature: influenza virus, respiratory syncytial infection, adenovirus, parainfluenza and so on. Atypical causative agents of bronchitis: chlamydia (Chlamydi pneumonia), mycoplasma (Mycoplasma pneumonia). They are called atypical due to the fact that by their biological characteristics they occupy an intermediate position between bacteria and viruses. They spend most of their life cycles like viruses inside a cell, but in terms of the characteristics of the cells they are much like bacteria. Very rarely, the cause of bronchitis is a fungal infection.
Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs, an infection of one or both lungs, which is usually caused by bacteria, fungi and viruses. Pneumonia is most often caused by bacteria — pneumococci, streptococci, staphylococci. More rare pathogens are Legionella, Klebsiel, Escherichia coli, Mycoplasma. Pneumonia can also be caused by viruses, but here again bacteria participate in inflammation. Symptoms of pneumonia are many. In recent years, an asymptomatic course is more and more common, during a disease a person does not have a fever, cough, sputum does not go away. Such pneumonia begins to be treated late, so it is dangerous with a large number of complications.
The main symptoms of pneumonia are the following manifestations: fever, in the range from 37 to 39.5 degrees, shortness of breath and sputum, chills, cough. Rarely there are bloody discharge, which leaves in the form of streaks of blood structured in sputum. A fairly characteristic symptom is chest pain when trying to take a deep breath, pain develops in the place where the main focus of inflammation is located. Especially often, pain appears with a pleural form of pneumonia. Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract, accompanied by their increased sensitivity to external and internal stimuli and manifested by periodically occurring attacks of suffocation. Allergies are known among the causes of bronchial asthma (a painful reaction of the body to the repeated ingestion of certain substances, most often of a protein nature); idiosyncrasy (congenital intolerance to certain substances; known, for example, “aspirin” asthma); personality traits (according to the classification of the World Health Organization, asthma refers to psychosomatic diseases, that is, to diseases that are based on the characteristics of the mental reactions of a given personality).
Some chemicals may also cause bronchospasm. Known, for example, is bronchial asthma of pharmacists associated with the inhalation of certain powders of inorganic nature, as well as occupational asthma in production workers using certain dyes. There is a hereditary predisposition to some forms of bronchial asthma, which does not mean the doom of the children of those who are genetically determined asthma. Bronchial asthma in children is one of the most common diseases. According to statistics, from 8% to 12% of children are exposed to it, and this indicator increases every year.
A significant role in this is played by the uncontrolled use of medications in the treatment of respiratory diseases, which provokes a malfunction of the immune system and the occurrence of allergic reactions, including allergic asthma. Therefore, asthma treatment should not be carried out with drugs, but with herbal remedies. Herbal remedies have proven to be superior to conventional medicines.