Advances in perinatal medicine, which has been rapidly developing in recent decades, have led to a significant increase in the survival rate of premature babies with very low and extremely low birth weight. However, among preterm infants who have survived critical conditions, follow-up observation shows an increase in the proportion of disabling diseases, including delayed postnatal growth and neurological deficit. It is relevant to find unused reserves for the prevention of growth disorders, neuroprotection, neurorehabilitation and immunotherapy of perinatal brain lesions in premature infants. Such reserves include correction of vitamin D deficiency. Continue reading
Bronchitis is an inflammatory disease of the lungs without
the formation of infiltrative changes in their parenchyma. Bronchitis can be both a manifestation of ARVI and its complication due to the addition of secondary bacterial microflora in the background or after suffering ARVI. The incidence of acute bronchitis in Russia averages 75–250 per 1000 children per year, that is, 2 orders of magnitude higher than pneumonia. Most often in children, bronchitis occurs in the age category of 1-3 years.
Viruses are thought to be the root cause of approximately 90% of cases of acute bronchitis. Despite this, in a prospective study aimed at studying the etiology and outcomes of lower respiratory tract infections in adults, viruses were isolated in only about a quarter of patients with this disease. Continue reading
Epileptic status (ES) is characterized by prolonged or repeated seizures / episodes without a return to the normal state for this patient. ES is often found in pediatric practice, it affects 18–23 out of 100 thousand children per year, mortality reaches 2–7%. Treatment measures include the introduction of anticonvulsants, the identification and elimination of factors that trigger ES, as well as the prevention of possible complications.
Definition and classification of ES
Historically, ES has been defined as “a condition characterized by an epileptic seizure / seizure long enough or recurring at short enough intervals to cause an unchanged and stable epileptic state”.
This definition was supplemented by the International League for the Control of Epilepsy, which decided that an attack / seizure should last at least 30 minutes, or during this period of time there should be several seizures without restoration of functions between them for more than 30 minutes. Continue reading