There are many reasons and risk factors for a decrease in immunity. A transient decrease in immunity is caused by insufficient protein and energy nutrition, a deficiency in the consumption of micronutrients, especially vitamins A, C, E, D, β-carotene, essential trace elements (zinc, iron, selenium, iodine), polyunsaturated fatty acids, the presence of chronic digestive diseases history of infectious diseases, taking antibiotics, exposure to environmental pathological factors, impaired intestinal microflora. Inadequate protein and energy intake are known to reduce antibody synthesis. Deficiency in the diet of polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins A, C, β-carotene, zinc is accompanied by disorders in all parts of the immune response. Iodine deficiency reduces the activity of the phagocytic link, components of antioxidant protection (vitamins A, E, zinc, selenium, etc.), adversely affects the functional activity and vital activity of immunocompetent cells. Many acute and chronic diseases negatively affect immunity, which significantly reduces the child’s resistance to infection and other damaging factors. Continue reading
Immunity is passive in nature and is provided by maternal antibodies. At the same time, its own immune system is in a state of suppression. The phagocytosis system is not developed. The newborn shows little resistance to opportunistic, pyogenic, gram-negative flora. A tendency to generalization of microbial-inflammatory processes, to septic conditions is characteristic. The child is very sensitive to viral infections, against which he is not protected by maternal antibodies. Approximately on the 5th day of life, the first cross in the white blood formula takes place and the absolute and relative predominance of lymphocytes is established.
The second critical period is due to the destruction of maternal antibodies. The primary immune response to infection penetrates through the synthesis of class M immunoglobulins and leaves no immunological memory. Continue reading
The human immune system begins to form before the birth of a child. Its place and extent of health effects are genetically programmed. From birth to puberty, step by step, the structure and functions of the immune system are formed. The development of the immune system is undergoing a number of critical stages that must be taken into account when assessing the state of health, the formation of preventive programs and the appointment of treatment for diseases. The main cell of the immune system is a lymphocyte. In addition, tissue macrophages, neutrophils, and natural killers (ECs) also participate in providing an immune response. The development of the body’s immune system continues throughout the entire period of childhood. In the process of development of the child’s immune system, “critical” periods are distinguished, i.e. periods of maximum risk of developing infectious diseases associated with insufficient immune system functions. Allocate innate and acquired immunity. Innate immunity is provided by factors of natural resistance. Some mechanisms of the fight against infection are innate, that is, they are present in the body before meeting with any infectious agent and their activity does not depend on a previous meeting with microorganisms. Continue reading